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Estrazione di composti biologicamente attivi da piante della Sardegna

Falconieri, Danilo (2012) Estrazione di composti biologicamente attivi da piante della Sardegna. [Doctoral Thesis]

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Abstract

This research work has been focused on the supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of volatile oils having interesting biological activities, possibly susceptible of therapeutic applications. A further aim of this work was to separate biologically active molecules and nutraceuticals by means of SFE at high pressure. The investigated species have been selected on the basis of ethnobotanic information regarding, in particular, species endemic of Sardinia or that can be easily cultivated there and containing compounds of pharmacological interest. Extraction by means of supercritical CO2 has been preferred to the traditional techniques because of a number of advantages. First of all the obtaining of pure extracts deprived of organic solvents and of degradation compounds and not being modified by the loss of water-soluble compounds. The chemical characterization of extracts has been realized by means of different chromatographic techniques such as GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC. Concerning the main results, the supercritical extraction at 250 bar on Salvia desoleana aerial parts allowed us to obtain an extract containing a relevant amount of sclareole: 811 μg/mg, determined by the internal standard method. These samples, tested on human cells model, showed a good antioxidant and cytoprotective activity. As far as the wheath germ oil is concerned, the SFE carried out at 250 bar supplied extracts of good quality. The HPLC and GC-FID analyses of these extracts highlighted a PUFA and Vitamin E content greater than the those obtained by traditional solvent extractions. The SFE Pistacia lentiscus essential oil, tested in vivo on an oxidative model of the mice frontal cortex induced by hyschemia/riperfusion, BCCAO, showed a relevant protection against lipidic peroxidation. The Myrtus communis essential oil, tested in vivo on mice, demonstrated a good antinflammatory action against the ear edema induced by croton oil and against the cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Among the investigated Sardinian verbenacee and lamiacee such as Vitex agnus-castus, Satureja thymbra and Thymus capitatus, containing an essential oil particularly rich in phenolic compounds, showed a good antimicrobial activity and could be employed in therapeutic applications. A comparative analysis on the composition of essential oils obtained from Sardinian and Portuguese plants (Bupleurum fruticosum, Smyrnium olusatrum, Calamintha nepeta nepeta and Achillea millefolium) showed the existence of different chemotypes and showed that derivatives of Sardinian origin have a greater antimicrobial activity. Among the studied vegetable species coming from regions outside Sardinia, it is noteworthy the comparison among the Laurus nobilis leaves oil from Tunisia and Algeria that showed a strong variability of composition related to their geographical origin. Tunisian oils showed a greater biological activity than the Algerian ones. It has been also demonstrated that berries essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa, J. oxycedrus ssp. rufescens and J. phoenicea possess a relevant antioxidant activity.

Item Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date:29 March 2012
Tutor:Porcedda, Silvia
PhD classes:Ciclo 23 > Scienze e tecnologie chimiche
Coordinator:Casu, Mariano
Institution:Universita' degli Studi di Cagliari
Divisions:Dipartimenti (fino a dicembre 2011) > Dipartimento di Scienze chimiche
Subjects:Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/10 Chimica degli alimenti
Uncontrolled Keywords:Essential oils, supercritical carbon dioxide extracts, biological activity, chemical composition
ID Code:763
Deposited On:02 Apr 2012 08:19

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